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    WTO與貿易有關的知識產權協定(II)

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    WTO與貿易有關的知識產權協定(II)

    Article 13  Limitations and Exceptions13  限制和例外

    Members shall confine limitations or exceptions to exclusive rights to certain special cases which do not conflict with a normal exploitation of the work and do not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the right holder.

    各成員對專有權作出的任何限制或例外規定應限于某些特殊情況,且不會與對作品的正常利用相沖突,也不會不合理地損害權利持有人的合法權益。

     

    Article 14  Protection of Performers, Producers of Phonograms (Sound Recordings) and Broadcasting Organizations

    14  對表演者、 錄音制品(唱片)制作者和廣播組織的保護

     

    1.In respect>: the fixation of their unfixed performance and the reproduction of such fixation. Performers shall also have the possibility of preventing the following acts when undertaken without their authorization: the broadcasting by wireless means and the communication to the public of their live performance.

    就將其表演錄制在錄音制品上而言,表演者應有可能阻止下列未經其授權的行為:錄制其未錄制過的表演和復制這些錄制品。表演者還應有可能阻止下列未經其授權的行為:以無線廣播方式播出和向大眾傳播其現場表演。

     

    2.Producers of phonograms shall enjoy the right to authorize or prohibit the direct or indirect reproduction of their phonograms.

    錄音制品制作者應享有準許或禁止直接或間接復制其錄音制品的權利。

     

    3.Broadcasting>:the fixation,the reproduction>,and the rebroadcasting by wireless means>,they shall provide>,subject to the provisions of the Berne Convention (1971).

    廣播組織應有權禁止下列未經其授權的行為:錄制、復制其錄制品、以無線廣播方式轉播其廣播,以及將其電視廣播向公眾再轉播。如若各成員未授予廣播組織這種權利,則應在符合《伯爾尼公約》(1971)規定的前提下,給予廣播客體的版權所有人以阻止上述行為的可能性。

     

    4.The provisions>,it may maintain such system provided that the commercial rental of phonograms is not giving rise to the material impairment of the exclusive rights of reproduction of right holders.

    11條關于計算機程序的規定作必要修改后應適用于錄音制品制作者和按一成員法確定的任何其他對錄音制品的權利持有人。如若在1994415日,一成員在錄音制品的出租方面已在實施向權利持有人公平付酬的制度,則可維持這一制度,只要對錄音制品的商業性出租不對權利持有人的專有復制權造成實質性的減損。

     

    5.The term of the protection available under this Agreement to performers and producers of phonograms shall last at least until the end of a period of 50 years computed from the end of the calendar year in which the fixation was made or the performance took place. The term of protection granted pursuant to paragraph 3 shall last for at least 20 years from the end of the calendar year in which the broadcast took place.

    本協定項下給予表演者和錄音制品制作者可獲得的保護期限,應自該錄制或表演發生的日歷年年底起,至少持續到第50年年末。根據第3款所給予的保護期限,應自廣播發生的日歷年年底起,至少持續20年。

     

    6.Any Member may, in relation to the rights conferred under paragraphs 1,2 and 3, provide for conditions,limitations,exceptions and reservations to the extent permitted by the Rome Convention. However,the provisions>,mutatis mutandis,to the rights of performers and producers of phonograms in phonograms.

    任何成員可對第1款、第2款和第3款給予的權利,在《羅馬公約》允許的限度內,規定條件、限制、例外和保留。但是,《伯爾尼公約》(1971)18條的規定在作必要修改后也應適用于表演者和錄音制品制作者就錄音制品享有的權利。

     

    SECTION 2:  TRADEMARKS  第二節:商標

    Article 15  Protectable Subject Matter15  可保護客體

    1.Any sign,or any combination>,shall be capable>,in particular words including personal>,letters,numerals, figurative elements and combinations>, shall be eligible for registration as trademarks. Where signs are>,Members may make registrability depend>,as a condition>,that signs be visually perceptible.

    任何標記或標記的組合,只要能區分一企業和其他企業的貨物或服務,就應能構成一個商標。這些標記,特別是單詞,包括個人名、字母、數字、圖形成分和顏色的組合以及任何這些標記的組合,均應有資格作為商標進行注冊。如若標記沒有固有的區分有關商品或服務的特征,各成員可經由使用后獲得的顯著性作為是否予以注冊。各成員可要求,作為注冊的一個條件,這些標記應在視覺上可感知的。

     

    2.Paragraph 1 shall>,provided that they do not derogate from the provisions of the Paris Convention (1967).

    1款不應理解為阻止一成員以其他理由拒絕商標的注冊,只要這些理由不違反《巴黎公約》(1967)的規定。

     

    3.Members may make registrability depend>,actual use of a trademark shall not be a condition for filing an application for registration. An application shall not be refused solely on the ground that intended use has not taken place before the expiry of a period of three years from the date of application.

    各成員可將使用作為注冊的前提。然而,一商標的實際使用不應作為申請注冊的一項條件。不能僅僅因為自申請日起三年期滿商標末按原意使用而拒絕該申請。

     

    4.The nature of the goods or services to which a trademark is to be applied shall in no case form an obstacle to registration of the trademark.

    一商標所適用的貨物或服務的性質在任何情況下不得成為申請商標注冊的障礙。

     

    5.Members shall publish each trademark either before it is registered>,Members may afford an opportunity for the registration of a trademark to be opposed.

    各成員應在商標注冊前或在注冊后迅速公布每一商標,并應給予請求撤銷注冊以合理的機會。此外,各成員可以提供對商標之注冊提出異議的機會。

     

    Article 16  Rights Conferred16  授予的權利

    1.The>,a likelihood>,nor shall they affect the possibility of Members making rights available on the basis of use.

    注冊商標的所有人應有專有權,以阻止所有第三方未經其同意在交易過程中對與已獲商標注冊的貨物或服務的相同或類似的貨物或服務使用相同或類似的標記,如若這種使用可能會產生混淆。在對相同貨物或服務使用相同標記是情況下,則應推定存在混淆的可能性。上述權利不應損害任何現有的優先權,也不應影響各成員以使用為基礎授予權利的可能性。

     

    2. Article 6bis>,mutatis mutandis,to services. In determining whether a trademark is well-known,Members shall take account>,including knowledge in the Member concerned which has been obtained as a result of the promotion of the trademark.

    《巴黎公約》(1967)6條之二這必要修改后應適用于服務。在確定一商標是否馳名時,各成員應考慮到該商標在相關部門為公眾所了解的程度,包括該商標因促銷而在該有關成員獲得理解的程度。

     

    3. Article 6bis>,mutatis mutandis,to goods>,

    provided that use of that trademark in relation to those goods or services would indicate a

    connection between those goods or services and the owner of the registered trademark and provided that the interests of the owner of the registered trademark are likely to be damaged by such use.

    《巴黎公約》(1967)6條之二在作必要修改后應適用于與已獲得商標注冊的貨物或服務不相類似的貨物或服務,只要該商標在那些貨物或服務上的使用會表明那些貨物或服務與該注冊商標所有人之間存在著聯系,且這種使用有可能損害該注冊商標所有人的權益。

     

    Article 17  Exceptions17  例外

    Members may provide limited exceptions to the rights conferred by a trademark,such as fair use>,provided that such exceptions take account of the legitimate interests of the owner of the trademark and of third parties.

    各成員可對商標所授予的權利規定有限制的例外,如適當使用描述性術語,只要這些例外考慮到商標所有人和第三方的合法權益。

     

    Article 18  Term>第18  保護期限

    Initial registration,and each renewal>,of a trademark shall be for a term of no less than seven years. The registration of a trademark shall be renewable indefinitely.

    商標首次注冊及其每次續展的期限不得少于7年。商標的注冊應可無限期地續展。

     

    Article 19  Requirement>第19  使用要求

    1. If use is required to maintain a registration,the registration may be cancelled>,unless valid reasons based>,such as import restrictions>,shall be recognized as valid reasons for non-use.

    如若保留注冊要求使用商標,那么只有在至少連續3年未得使用后才可取消注冊,除非商標所有人提出有效的理由說明存在使用該商標的障礙。出現構成商標使用的障礙但并非出乎商標所有人意愿之情形,如對受商標保護的貨物或服務實施進口限制或其他政府要求,應被認為是不使用的有效理由。

     

    2. When subject to the control>,use of a trademark by another person shall be recognized as use of the trademark for the purpose of maintaining the registration.

    在受所有權人控制的情況下,另一人使用一商標應被認為為保留商標注冊而使用商標。

     

    Article 20  Other Requirements20  其他要求

    The use>,such as use with another trademark, use in a special form>,but without linking it to,the trademark distinguishing the specific goods or services in question of that undertaking.

    商標在交易過程中的使用不應受到特殊要求不合理的阻礙,諸如與另一商標一起使用,以特殊形式使用或其使用方式會損害其區分一企業的貨物或服務與其他企業的貨物或服務的能力。但該規定不排除這樣的要求,即要求將識別該生產貨物或服務的企業的商標與區別該企業的具體貨物或服務的商標一起使用,但不將兩者聯系起來。

     

    Article 21  Licensing and Assignment21  許可和轉讓

    Members may determine conditions>,it being understood that the compulsory licensing of trademarks shall not be permitted and that the owner of a registered trademark shall have the right to assign the trademark with or without the transfer of the business to which the trademark belongs.

    各成員可對商標的許可和轉讓規定條件,但這應理解為不允許商標的強制許可,而且注冊商標的所有權人有權將商標與該商標所屬業務同時或不同時轉讓。

     

    SECTION 3: GEOGRAPHICAL INDICATIONS第三節:地理標識

    Article 22  Protection>第22  地理標識的保護

    1. Geographical indications are,for the purposes>,indications which identify a good as>,or a region>,where a given quality,reputation or other characteristic of the good is essentially attributable to its geographical origin.

    本協定之目的而言,“地理標識”是指識別某一貨物來源于一成員的領土或該領土內的一個地區或地方的標識,而該貨物所具有的質量、聲譽或其他特性實質上歸因于其地理來源。

     

    2. In respect>,Members shall provide the legal means for interested parties to prevent

    在地理標識方面,各成員應為有利益關系的各方提供法律手段以防止:

     

    (a) the use>;

    用任何方式在標示和說明某一貨物時指示或暗示該有關貨物來源于一個非其真實原產地的一個地理區域,從而在該貨物的地理來源方面誤導公眾;

     

    (b) any use which constitutes an act of unfair competition within the meaning of Article 10bis of the Paris Convention (1967).

    任何構成《巴黎公約》(1967)10條之二意義下不公平競爭行為的使用,

     

    3. A Member shall,ex>,refuse>,if use of the indication in the trademark for such goods in that Member is of such a nature as to mislead the public as to the true place of origin.

    如若一商標包含的或構成的有關貨物并非源自所表明領土的地理標識,且如若在該貨物的商標中使用這一標識會使公眾對其真實的原產地產生誤解,則一成員在其立法允許或有利益關系的一方請求的情況下,可拒絕或廢止該商標的注冊。

     

    4. The protection under paragraphs 1,2 and 3 shall be applicable against a geographical indication which,although literally true as to the territory,region>,falsely represents to the public that the goods originate in another territory.

    根據第1款、第2款和第3款給予的保護應可適用于雖在字面上表明貨物來源的真實領土、地區或地方,但卻虛假地向公眾表明該貨物源于另一領土的地理標識。

     

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